The Ultimate Green Ship

The Shipping Industry is leaving no stones unturned in order to contribute towards a greener marine environment. At both manufacturing and administrative levels, the maritime industry is taking advantage of the latest technologies to ensure that new ships contribute as low as possible to the global pollution.

Designing a Ship in present times has become a challenging task for now a ship has to be fully complied with new environmental rules and regulations. A few benchmark technologies have already been developed to reach the ultimate goal of building a “Green ship” which would not only comply with the new environmental rules and regulations but would also leave least possible carbon foot-prints.

1-No Ballast System: Ballast water convention by IMO focuses on reducing the transit of sediments and micro organisms of one territory to another through the ballast of ships. In order to prevent this condition, plans of making a “No Ballast Ships” is under progress. A no ballast ship or similar system can drastically reduce this problem.

2-LNG Fuel for Propulsion: It is said that LNG fuel is the future of the Shipping industry. LNG fuel helps in reduction of air pollution from ships, and a combination of LNG fuel with diesel oil will lead to efficient engine performance, resulting in fuel saving

3- LNG Fuel for Auxiliary engine: Auxiliary engines on ships are main sources of power. Moreover they are one of those machines that are continuous running onboard vessels. LNG fuel for such engines can drastically reduce air pollution from ships

4-Sulphur Scrubber System: It’s not practically possible to phase-out usage of conventional fuels in ships and hence reducing sulphur or SOx emission from the exhaust is a solution that would be used extensively in the future. This can be achieved by installing an exhaust gas scrubber system wherein the sulphur is washed out from the exhaust gas of the engine resulting in reduction of SOx up to 98 % along with other harmful particles.

5-Advanced Rudder and Propeller System: A well designed Propeller and streamlined rudder system can reduce the fuel consumption up to 4 % resulting in less emission. Advanced designs of propeller and rudder systems have been developed to not only reduce the fuel consumption but also improve the speed of the vessel.

6-Speed Nozzle: Speed Nozzles are generally used in small supply vessels and tugs to provide power to the ships. Along with new design features of merchant vessels, they can improve the propulsion efficiency of the ship by saving power up to approx 5 %.

7-Hull Paint: Another important factor that can increase the fuel consumption of a ship and hence emissions is improving hull properties. Applying correct paint at correct hull area can reduce the frictional resistance of the ship resulting in 3-8% of fuel savings.

8-Waste Heat Recovery System: This system is already in use for quite some time now, but making it more efficient can reduce the fuel consumption of the ship drastically up to 14% of the total consumption. The waste heat from the exhaust gases can be utilised to heat and generate steam which in turn can be used for heating cargo area, accommodation, fuel oil etc.

9-Exhaust Gas Recirculation: In this system, NOx emissions from the engine is reduced by recirculation of exhaust gas from engine cylinder with scavenge air which lowers the temperature of the combustion chamber. Some part of the exhaust air is re-circulated and added to scavenge air of the engine which reduces the oxygen content of the scavenge air along with temperature of combustion cylinder. With this method NOx reduction of up to 80% can be achieved.

10-Water in Fuel: The addition of water in fuel just before its injection into the combustion chamber can reduce the temperature inside the cylinder liner. An efficient system for this can result in NOx reduction of up to 30-35%.

11-Improved Pump and Cooling Water System: An optimized cooling water system of pipes, coolers and pumps can result in decreased resistance to the flow. This will lead to savings of up to 20% of electric power of the ship and fuel consumption up to 1.5 %.

12-Sail and Kite Propulsion System: Sail and Kite propulsion system when used along with the conventional propulsion system can reduce the fuel as well as NOx, SOx and CO2 emissions by 35%. 

13-Fuel and Solar Cell Propulsion: The fuel cell propulsion utilizes power from a combination of fuel cells, solar cells and battery systems. This helps in reduction of GHG emission to a great extent.

14-Sandwich Plate System (SPS): It is a process of composting two metals plates by bonding it with polyurethane elastomer core.  This avoids usage of steel which requires additional stiffening hence makes the structure light weight and less prone to corrosion. This technology can definitely play a good role in green ship recycling process as SPS feature includes superior in service performance and reduced through life maintenance.

Vessel Types Explained

Modern seagoing commercial vessels come in all shapes and sizes and are designed to carry a wide variety of cargoes. This article will attempt to provide a brief overview of the main types that are plying the oceans today and give some history as to how each design has evolved.To begin, the main cargo types should be defined. For the purposes of this article, cargoes shall be divided into dry, liquid and specialised, with each of these divided further into sub categories. Dry cargoes include bulk, general and breakbulk, containers, reefer and Ro-Ro. Liquid cargoes are predominantly oil based but may also include chemicals and liquefied gasses. Specialised cargoes include passengers, livestock and heavy-lift/project. 

Dry Cargo Ships:
Historically, dry cargo vessels were the mainstay of the world’s merchant fleet. Known as general cargo vessels, they would be “geared”, that is equipped with their own cargo loading equipment, usually in the form of derricks. The cargo would be stowed in different holds and the speed and effectiveness of the loading/unloading process would depend on the skill of the ship’s crew and the port workers or “Stevedores”. Such ships would sometimes operate a regular service between two or more ports as “liners”, but could also operate in the “tramp trade” where vessels would go wherever they were required.

 

Bulk Carriers:

For dry cargoes with a high weight to cost ratio such as coal, grain and ore, economies of scale have produced the modern bulk carrier. These usually large vessels are divided up into several separate holds covered by hatches. In port, cargo is loaded by conveyor and spouts or by crane and grab. Some bulk carriers are geared (usually a crane is located between each hatch) to allow the loading and unloading of cargo at berths without the need for shore equipment.

For unloading, cranes with grabs are the norm although specialised equipment may be used for certain cargoes. When vessels unload using cranes and grabs, personnel and vehicles will often be placed inside the holds to assist the process. Cargo will usually be unloaded into hoppers and will then be transferred by conveyor to silos or open storage, smaller vessels may discharge directly into road vehicles.

General Cargo Vessels:
Although largely replace by bulk and container carriers, general cargo vessels still operate throughout the world. Cargo is usually in the form of pallets or bags and is known as breakbulk. There may be specialised handling facilities for such cargo, but usually loading and unloading is carried out using cranes and straps (for boxes) or slings (for bags). Loose or irregular cargo is also carried, in this case the vessel’s crew and port stevedores will pack the cargo to minimise damage and maximise the utilisation of space.

Container Vessels:

Containers have become the main way of transporting manufactured goods around the world. A container can be transferred between truck, train and ship relatively easily and is a standard size to simplify transportation. Containers can accommodate anything from foodstuffs to electrical equipment to automobiles. Containers are also used to transport bagged and palletised goods, liquids and refrigerated cargo. 

Standard containers are measured as TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) and are generally 20 feet (1 TEU) or 40 feet (2 TEUs) long. All standard shipping containers are 8 feet wide and 8 feet 6 inches tall. There are also longer, taller and even shorter standard sizes, but these are less common.

Container ships are made up of several holds, each equipped with “cell guides” which allow the containers to slot into place. Once the first layers of containers have been loaded and the hatches closed, extra layers are loaded on top of the hatches. Each container is then lashed to the vessel but also to each other to provide integrity. Containers are usually loaded by specialised cranes or even general purpose cranes with container lifting attachments but some small container vessels are geared to allow self-loading/discharging.

Container vessels are used predominantly on liner routes and are some of the biggest vessels afloat. Ultra Large Container Vessels (ULCVs) such as the Emma Maersk (lead ship of the Maersk E-Class vessels) are able to carry approximately 15,000 TEU (depending on container weight). Large container vessels are restricted by their size to certain ports around the world and are also unable to transit certain areas due to draft or, in the case of canals beam, restrictions.

Reefer Vessels:
Ships designed to carry a refrigerated cargo usually comprising perishable goods such as fruit or meat are known as “Reefer Vessels”. Cargo is stowed in holds which are then sealed and temperature controlled. Traditional reefer vessels have been largely replaced by the use of reefer containers which may be carried on board a container vessel. Reefer containers only need a power source to function although they are usually loaded to allow the crew to inspect them during the voyage.

Ro-Ro Vessels:

Roll on-Roll off or Ro-Ro vessels come in many forms including vehicle ferries and cargo ships carrying truck trailers but the major type used for the transport of road vehicles is the car carrier. These slab-sided vessels feature multiple vehicle decks comprising parking lanes, linked by internal ramps with access to the shore provided by one or more loading ramp. Cargo capacity of such vessels is measured in Car Equivalent Units (CEU) and the largest car carriers afloat today have a capacity of over 6,000 CEU.

Liquid Cargo Ships: 

These vessels, collectively known as tankers, carry a range of liquid cargoes. Tankers were first developed in the mid nineteenth century when the use of iron allowed liquids to be carried in bulk economically and without leakage. Like the case of the bulk carrier, economies of scale have driven up the size of tankers and to day the largest examples have a carrying capacity or “deadweight” of over 400,000 tons.

Tankers are divided into separate tanks into which the cargo is pumped via a pipeline system. Modern tankers have large and segregated ballast tanks to allow them to sit lower in the water on the return ’empty’ journey to improve stability. Many tankers also feature systems to add an inert gas to the tanks to reduce the risk of fire and explosion.

Crude Carriers:
The largest ships afloat are the Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs) and the Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs). These ships are designed to load crude oil and transport it to refineries around the world where it can be processed into petroleum products. The largest crude carriers often load and unload at offshore buoys and terminals as they are too large to enter most ports.

Product Carriers:
These vessels, which are generally smaller than crude carriers, transport the refined products from larger terminals to smaller ports around the world. Products carried can include petroleum, jet fuel, diesel, asphalt, lubricating oil and tar. Smaller tankers are also used to transport non-petroleum bulk liquids such as molasses and palm oil.

Chemical Carriers:

These ships usually have a deadweight of 5,000-40,000 tons and often have specialised cargo systems suited to the type of cargo carried. These systems can include heating or cooling apparatus and advanced cleaning systems to ensure the purity of a cargo is maintained when loaded into a tank that may have previously carried something different.

Liquefied Gas Carriers:

These ships began as converted oil tankers but have evolved into highly specialised purpose-built vessels. Designed to carry Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) under pressure, the cargo tanks are generally spherical for strength. LNG carriers are usually larger than those carrying LPG, the largest LNG carriers are the ‘Q-Flex’ vessels with a gas capacity of up to 266,000 cubic metres.

Specialised Cargoes:
Most types of cargo could be considered as specialised due to the specific loading, unloading or stowage arrangements required. Many such cargoes are however, moved with such regularity and ease that the term ‘specialised’ takes on a new meaning. For the purpose of this article, it refers to cargoes that are either difficult to categorise as dry or liquid, or to cargoes that are relatively difficult to handle.

Passenger Vessels:

This category includes everything from 10 person foot ferries up to cruise ships able to carry over 6,000 passengers. Perhaps the most specialised cargo of all, the needs and desires of passengers have driven the design of the modern ferries and cruise vessels.

Ferries, once seen as ‘a means to an end’ for most, are now lavishly equipped with lounges, restaurants, shops and entertainment facilities – particularly when the ferry is on a relatively long route. The ships have got larger too, the Ulysees for example which runs between Holyhead and Dublin, is able to carry over 1,300 cars and 2,000 passengers.

The first example of ships undertaking a public ‘cruise’ can be traced back to the nineteenth century but cruising gained mass popularity in the latter twentieth century. Many cruise vessels were originally liners which were sent to warmer climates during seasonal bad weather on their regular routes. Arguably, the last of the liners is the Queen Mary 2, which still operates a regular transatlantic service.

Today, cruise passengers demand and expect a wide range of facilities including casinos, gymnasiums, shops, theatres, cinemas, pools, restaurants and bars. The largest cruise vessels can be up to 360 m. long and 60 m. wide. Popular cruising areas are the Mediterranean, Caribbean and Scandinavia.

Livestock Carriers:
These ships are often converted from other types of vessel and are equipped with pens for large numbers of animals. The main considerations during the transport of livestock are adequate ventilation, food and water, but also the ability of the reception facilities at the destination port to handle the cargo. Some livestock carriers are reported to be able to transport up to 120,000 sheep. A Common route for livestock carriers is Australia and New Zealand to the Middle East.

Heavy-lift/Project Cargo Vessels:
These, mostly purpose built, vessels specialise in the transport of extremely heavy or bulky objects such as other ships and large industrial components. Some heavy-lift vessels are equipped with high capacity cranes to load at ports without a heavy-lift capability. Other types are semi submergible, which allows a cargo to be floated into position before the heavy-lift vessel de-ballasts to lift the cargo out of the water.

Notable occasions where semi-submersible heavy-lift vessels have been used are the return of RFA Sir Tristram to the UK following the Falklands conflict and the return of the USS Cole to the United States following the bombing in Aden. Heavy-lift vessels have also transported offshore platforms from their construction site to the drilling site.

Common project cargoes are wind turbine blades and towers, quay cranes and industrial machinery. Some project cargo vessels have been adapted further to suit their role. ‘Jack up’ vessels for example are able to put down ‘legs’ to lift themselves out of the water. This is commonly used by vessels installing offshore wind farms where stability is required during the placing of the turbine towers.

Tugs:

Even with the advent of highly manoeuvrable vessels equipped with thrusters and azimuth pods, the tug is still vitally important to the maritime industry. Modern tugs are highly manoeuvrable with pulling power (bollard pull) sometimes in excess of 100 tonnes, although harbour tugs are generally much less powerful. Such vessels are on hand in ports around the world to assist in the berthing, unberthing and movement of large or less manoeuvrable vessels within port limits. Tugs are also used to assist the most manoeuvrable vessels during periods of bad weather or when carrying dangerous or polluting cargoes. Harbour tugs are also often employed to move barges, floating cranes and personnel around ports. Larger units are kept on standby in strategic locations to act as deep-sea rescue and salvage tugs.

Tugs are also used to tow barges from port to port, these sea-going tugs are also employed for the movement of large structures such as offshore platforms and floating storage units. Some tugs are utilised to push barges, this is particularly common on rivers where the tug is able to exert more turning force on the tow. There are also tugs that are designed to ‘slot’ into a barge or hull, once secured, this composite unit behaves and is treated like a standard powered vessel. These composite units, like tugs employed to push the cargo, are more common on North American river and coastal trade.

Bahregan Terminal-Iran Port info.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR VESSELS CALLING BAHREGAN TERMINAL (SBM)

THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA SHOULD BE APPLIED DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF VESSELS NOMINATED FOR LOADING AT THE S.B.M THE POINTS COVERED SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS.

BAHREGAN S.B.M TERMINAL LOCATION:


LAT. 29 DEG. 43 MIN. 02.5 SEC NORTH
LONG. 050 DEG. 09 MIN. 46.1 SEC EAST

  1. MOORING:(DOUBLE HAWSER) JOINT AT PORT BRACKET.
  2. DEPARTURE DISPLACEMENT: 250,000 TONS.
  3. MAX. SAILING DRAFT: 20 – 21 METERS.
  4. MAX. L.O.A: 340 METERS.
  5. ARRIVAL DRAFT: IN NORMAL BALLAST CONDITION.
  6. BERTHING OPERATION: BERTHING OPERATION WILL CARRY OUT ONLY

FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET, UNLESS TERMINAL’S EXCEPTIONAL DECISION.

  1. UN–BERTHING OPERATION : 24 HOURS
  2. THE WEATHER CONDITION THAT NORMALLY RESULT IN PORT CLOSURE CAN IN
    GENERAL TERM BE DEFINED AS FOLLOWS:
    • WIND SPEED IN EXCESS OF 20KNOTS. SWELL HIGHT IN EXCESS OF 3 FEET.
    • VISIBILITY REDUCED TO 3 NAUTICAL MILES OR LESS.
  3. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH A MIDSHIPS PORT SIDE CARGO MANIFOLD THAT COMPLIES WITH THE OCIMF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OIL TANKER MANIFOLDS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT.
  4. VESSELS WILL BE SECURED WITH 1 HAWSER FROM SBM TO THE PORT BOW OF TANKER.
  5. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH A PORT SIDE CRANE OR DERRICK WITH MIN. SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL) OF 10 TONNES HANDING CARGO HOSE.
  6. ONLY ONE 16″ INCH FLEXIBLE FLOATING HOSE WILL BE CONNECTED TO THE SHIPS PORTSIDE MANIFOLD.
  7. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH OPERATIONAL INERT GAS SYSTEM.
  8. VESSELS MUST BE CAPABLE OF LOADING CARGO IN CLOSED LOADING MODE (CLM).
  9. IF REQUIRED TO DE-BALLAST ONLY CBT (CLEAN BALLAST) OR SBT(SEGREGATED BALLAST) VESSELS CAN BE ACCEPTED FURTHERMORE THE VESSEL MUST BE EQIPPED WITH OPERATIONAL ODME.
  10. GEOGRAPHICAL POSION OF SHIPWRECK AT DISTANCE 0.8 MILES FROM 210SW OF S.B.M TERMINAL WITH LATITUDE 29 DEG. 42 MIN. 56 SEC. NORTH AND LONGTITUDE 50 DEG. 09 MIN. 47 SEC. EAST.
  11. GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF SHIPWRECK “IRAN RESHADAT” AT DISTANCE 6 MILES FORM S.B.M WITH LATITUD 29 MIN. 50 SEC NORTH AND 50 MIN. 9 SEC EAST.
  12. BOC TERMINAL MAINTAINS A LISTENING WATCH 24 HOURS ON VHF CHANNEL 11 & SSB 2638.0 .
  13. LOADING CONNECTION: 1 X 16” FLEXIBLE HOSE LOADING RATE 20000 TO 23000 BBLS.

 

Soroosh Terminal-Iran Port info.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR VESSELS CALLING FSU KHALIJ-E-FARS

THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA SHOULD BE APPLIED WHEN DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF VESSELS NOMINATED FOR LOADING AT THE FLOATING STORAGE UNIT KHALIJ-E-FARS. THE POINTS COVERED SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS.

  1. ACCORDING TO WATER DEPTH 42 METERS THEN THERE IS NO DRAFT RESTRICTIONS AT SOROOSH TERMINAL.
  2. ACCORDING TO MAX DEADWEIGHT 330,000 TONS THEN THERE IS NO ARRIVAL DISPLACEMENT RESTRICTIONS. JUST VESSEL SHOULD ARRIVE WITH ARRIVAL DRAFT OF UNDER 20.00 METTERS.
  3. THERE IS NO AIR HEIGHT RESTRICTIONS AT FSU KHALIJ-E-FARS.
  4. ORIGINAL DWT IS NOT APPLICABLE AT SOROOSH/NOWROOZ TERMINAL.
  5. ONLY VESSELS OF BETWEEN 80,000 AND 330,000 DWT CAN BE LOADED IN TANDEM MOORING CONFIGURATION.
  6. VESSELS MUST COMPLY WITH THE OCIMF ”RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED IN THE MOORING OF SHIPS AT SINGLE POINT MOORINGS”. N.B. ONLY 76 MM BOW STOPPER CAN BE ACCEPTED.
  7. VESSEL MUST BE CAPABLE OF ACCOMMODATING 200 METERS OF 10 INCH MESSENGER LINE ONTO A SINGLE DRUM OF THE MOORING WINCH WHEN RETRIEVING THE BOW MOORING HAWSER. THE WINCH DRUM SHOULD BE CLEARED OF ALL OTHER WIRES OR ROPES PRIOR TO COMMENCING MOORING OPERATIONS.
  8. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH A MIDSHIPS, PORT SIDE CARGO MANIFOLD THAT COMPLIES WITH THE OCIMF ”RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OIL TANKER MANIFOLDS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT”.
  9. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH A PORT SIDE CRANE OR DERRICK WITH A MINIMUM SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL) OF 15 TONNES FOR HANDLING LOADING HOSES.
  10. VESSELS MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH OPERATIONAL INERT GAS SYSTEM.
  11. VESSELS MUST BE CAPABLE OF LOADING CARGO IN CLOSED LOADING MODE (CLM).
  12. IF REQUIRED TO D-BALLAST, ONLY CBT (CLEAN BALLAST) OR SBT(SEGREGATED BALLAST) VESSELS CAN BE ACCEPTED. FURTHERMORE THE VESSEL MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH OPERATIONAL ODME.
  13. COMBINATION CARRIES (OBO) WHEREVER POSSIBLE SHOULD BE DICOURAGED. SUCH VESSELS SHOULD ONLY BE ACCEPTED FOR LOADING IF THE BUYER CAN PROVIDE EVIDENCE (DECLARATION) OF CREW COMPETENCY IN CRUDE OIL OPERATIONS AND CONFIRM THAT THE VESSEL HAS RECENTLY BEEN ENGAGED IN CRUDE OIL OPERATIONS E.G. LAST 2 CARGOES CARRIED.
  14. ACCOMMODATION LADDERS USED FOR BERTHING MASTER EMBARKATION MUST BE AFT FACING I.E. APPROACH DIRECTION FROM THE STERN OF THE VESSEL.

POSITION:

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF F.S.U. (SOORENA)

LAT.     29° 07’23’N.
LONG.  49°  28′ 57’’ E.

TANKERS ANCHORAGE POSITION:

  1. –  LAT. 29° 06′ N. LONG. 49° 35′ E (PILOT STATION)
  2. –  LAT. 29° 04′ N. LONG. 49° 35′ E
  3. –  LAT. 29° 06′ N. LONG. 49° 37′ E
  4. –  LAT. 29° 04′ N. LONG. 49° 37′ E

ADDITIONAL INFO:

  • ONLY DAYTIME BERTHING NAVIGATION IS AVAILABLE.
  • AVERAGE LDG RATE IS ABT 20-25,000 BBLS PER HR
  • HOSE CONNECTIONS 1 X 16” (3 TO 4 HRS CONNECTING TIME REQUIRED)
  • LOCATION IS 30 MINUTES FROM KHARG ISLAND BY HELICOPTER.
  • CARGO SUPPLIES VIA MOTHERSHIP ‘KHALIJ-E-FARS’.
  • API IS AROUND 20.00
  • VESSELS WILL BE BERTHED HEAD TO AFT. BY 50 METERS DISTANCE AND END OF EXPORTING VESSEL IS FIXED USING A TUGBOAT.
  • CAPACITY OF F.S.U. ‘KHALIJ-E-FARS’ IS 2,200,000 BBLS.