Crude Oil & Its Products

What is crude oil and what are petroleum products?
We call crude oil and petroleum fossil fuels because they are mixtures of hydrocarbons that formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine environment before the existence of dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand, silt, and rock. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into what we now call crude oil or petroleum. The word petroleum means rock oil or oil from the earth.
Crude oil and other hydrocarbons exist in liquid or gaseous from in underground pools or reservoirs, in tiny spaces within sedimentary rocks, and near the earth’s surface in tar (or oil) sandsPetroleum products are fuels made from crude oil and hydrocarbons contained in natural gas. Petroleum products can also be made from coal, natural gas, and biomass.

Products made from crude oil
After crude oil is removed from the ground, it is sent to a refinery where different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. These petroleum products include gasoline, distillates such as diesel fuel and heating oil, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks, waxes, lubricating oils, and asphalt. Learn more in Refining crude oil—inputs and outputs

A U.S. 42-gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 45 gallons of petroleum products in U.S. refineries because of refinery processing gain. This increase in volume is similar to what happens to popcorn when it is popped. A corn kernel is smaller and more dense than a popped kernel. The amount of individual products produced varies from month-to-month and year-to-year as refineries adjust production to meet market demand and to maximize profitability.

The 100% self-sufficient Boat

The Energy Observer is a 100% energy self-sufficient boat, sailing around the world to prove the usefulness of cutting-edge technologies, including a hydrogen fuel cell made with help from Toyota.

Somewhere in the vast ocean, a little boat covered in solar panels is doing something extraordinary: making its own hydrogen fuel from the seawater underneath it.

Hydrogen has long been touted as a clean-energy alternative to fossil fuels, though it has so far failed to catch on in our daily lives. People don’t want to buy hydrogen cars until there are enough hydrogen refueling stations — and there’s not much incentive to build hydrogen refueling stations until more people are driving hydrogen cars. That’s one thing the Energy Observer team hopes to change.

The Energy Observer uses a patchwork of different cutting-edge technologies to generate enough energy to power nine homes each day. During the day, 200 square meters of solar panels charge up the boat’s lithium ion batteries. Any extra energy is stored as hydrogen, thanks to a special fuel cell that goes by the name Rex H2 (short for Range Extender H2).

The Rex H2 was made by Toyota, using components from Toyota’s hydrogen-powered Mirai vehicle line. The fuel cell brings in seawater, removes the salt and then separates the H from the pure H20 with electricity.

When the Energy Observer began its journey in 2017, it could only produce hydrogen while stopped. That changed in a big way with the addition of the Oceanwings, 12-meter sails that improved the efficiency of the Energy Observer from 18% to 42%, to the point where it can now produce hydrogen even while sailing.

While there is a raging debate between proponents of hydrogen fuel cells — including Toyota — and proponents of lithium ion batteries — like Tesla’s Elon Musk — over which technology is best for powering the post-fossil fuel vehicles of the future, one of the main benefits of hydrogen is its ability to store more more electricity by weight than its lithium ion competition. This benefit is especially useful at sea, where weight capacity is an important consideration.

Because fossil fuels have had more than a century’s head start, we now find ourselves far beyond the point of any one technology being a silver bullet for our growing energy needs. A sustainable future will require a patchwork of new technologies, like the one powering the Energy Observer — and the investment to develop and scale them up for future generations.

The Ultimate Green Ship

The Shipping Industry is leaving no stones unturned in order to contribute towards a greener marine environment. At both manufacturing and administrative levels, the maritime industry is taking advantage of the latest technologies to ensure that new ships contribute as low as possible to the global pollution.

Designing a Ship in present times has become a challenging task for now a ship has to be fully complied with new environmental rules and regulations. A few benchmark technologies have already been developed to reach the ultimate goal of building a “Green ship” which would not only comply with the new environmental rules and regulations but would also leave least possible carbon foot-prints.

1-No Ballast System: Ballast water convention by IMO focuses on reducing the transit of sediments and micro organisms of one territory to another through the ballast of ships. In order to prevent this condition, plans of making a “No Ballast Ships” is under progress. A no ballast ship or similar system can drastically reduce this problem.

2-LNG Fuel for Propulsion: It is said that LNG fuel is the future of the Shipping industry. LNG fuel helps in reduction of air pollution from ships, and a combination of LNG fuel with diesel oil will lead to efficient engine performance, resulting in fuel saving

3- LNG Fuel for Auxiliary engine: Auxiliary engines on ships are main sources of power. Moreover they are one of those machines that are continuous running onboard vessels. LNG fuel for such engines can drastically reduce air pollution from ships

4-Sulphur Scrubber System: It’s not practically possible to phase-out usage of conventional fuels in ships and hence reducing sulphur or SOx emission from the exhaust is a solution that would be used extensively in the future. This can be achieved by installing an exhaust gas scrubber system wherein the sulphur is washed out from the exhaust gas of the engine resulting in reduction of SOx up to 98 % along with other harmful particles.

5-Advanced Rudder and Propeller System: A well designed Propeller and streamlined rudder system can reduce the fuel consumption up to 4 % resulting in less emission. Advanced designs of propeller and rudder systems have been developed to not only reduce the fuel consumption but also improve the speed of the vessel.

6-Speed Nozzle: Speed Nozzles are generally used in small supply vessels and tugs to provide power to the ships. Along with new design features of merchant vessels, they can improve the propulsion efficiency of the ship by saving power up to approx 5 %.

7-Hull Paint: Another important factor that can increase the fuel consumption of a ship and hence emissions is improving hull properties. Applying correct paint at correct hull area can reduce the frictional resistance of the ship resulting in 3-8% of fuel savings.

8-Waste Heat Recovery System: This system is already in use for quite some time now, but making it more efficient can reduce the fuel consumption of the ship drastically up to 14% of the total consumption. The waste heat from the exhaust gases can be utilised to heat and generate steam which in turn can be used for heating cargo area, accommodation, fuel oil etc.

9-Exhaust Gas Recirculation: In this system, NOx emissions from the engine is reduced by recirculation of exhaust gas from engine cylinder with scavenge air which lowers the temperature of the combustion chamber. Some part of the exhaust air is re-circulated and added to scavenge air of the engine which reduces the oxygen content of the scavenge air along with temperature of combustion cylinder. With this method NOx reduction of up to 80% can be achieved.

10-Water in Fuel: The addition of water in fuel just before its injection into the combustion chamber can reduce the temperature inside the cylinder liner. An efficient system for this can result in NOx reduction of up to 30-35%.

11-Improved Pump and Cooling Water System: An optimized cooling water system of pipes, coolers and pumps can result in decreased resistance to the flow. This will lead to savings of up to 20% of electric power of the ship and fuel consumption up to 1.5 %.

12-Sail and Kite Propulsion System: Sail and Kite propulsion system when used along with the conventional propulsion system can reduce the fuel as well as NOx, SOx and CO2 emissions by 35%. 

13-Fuel and Solar Cell Propulsion: The fuel cell propulsion utilizes power from a combination of fuel cells, solar cells and battery systems. This helps in reduction of GHG emission to a great extent.

14-Sandwich Plate System (SPS): It is a process of composting two metals plates by bonding it with polyurethane elastomer core.  This avoids usage of steel which requires additional stiffening hence makes the structure light weight and less prone to corrosion. This technology can definitely play a good role in green ship recycling process as SPS feature includes superior in service performance and reduced through life maintenance.

Iran Petrochemical Companies

Abadan Petrochemical Company

Built on the basis of a lease obtained in 1909, it was completed in 1912 as a pipeline terminus, and was one of the world's largest oil refineries. In 1927, oil exports from Abadan totalled nearly 4.5 million tons.The refinery was largely destroyed in September 1980 by Iraq during the initial stages of the Iraqi invasion of Iran's Khuzestan province, triggering the Iran–Iraq War, It had a capacity of 635,000 b/d in 1980 and formed a refinery complex with important petrochemical plants. Its capacity has been increased steadily since the war ended in 1988 and is now listed as 429,000 barrels per day (68,200 m3/d) of crude oil.

Petrochemical - esfahan

Esfahan Petrochemical Company

Esfahan Petrochemical Co. is the first Producer of aromatics line of chemicals in Iran. In 1992, with the aim of producing over 300,000 tons/year of Benzene, Toluene, Ortho-Xylene, Para-Xylene and Mixed-Xylenes joined other country’s petrochemical producing plants. Being respected as one of the infra-structure petrochemical plants of the country, its strategic Products are being used in downstream line of industries such as Production of: Detergents, Plastics, Polyester fiber, Plastic softeners, Paints and other applications. With the help of highest technologies implemented in the design of the production units all stages of Production Process are controlled by the most advanced DCS system. EPC, from the start-up of its production units for achievement of customer's satisfaction as its first goal has chosen to acquire quality system in all areas of production activities. With the great endeavors and obligations of the hard working personnel, EPC during the last five consecutive years of its operating life has been designated and honored with “The Best Complex of the Year” Award from mother company National Iranian Petrochemical Co. of Iran.

Petrochemical - Bakhtar

Bakhtar Petrochemical Company

Bakhtar Petrochemical Company was established in February 2003 with the initial capital investment of 2000 billion Rials as a holding company, funded by following stockholders to provide the required capital investment for its Subsidiary Companies. National Petrochemical Co. (30%), Pension funds of Petroleum Ministry (20%), Arak Petrochemical Co. (10%), Isfahan Petrochemical Co. (5%), MelliBank Investment Co. (5%), Social Security Organization (5%), Pension Funds Investment Co. (5%), Ghadir Investment Co. (5%), Petrochemical Industries Investment Co. (5%), Modabber Investment Co. (5%), Iran Industrial Development Co. (2.5%), Rena Investment Co. (2.5%).

Bandar Imam Petrochemical Company

Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex (BIPC) is located on the northwest side of the Persian Gulf. Receiving Naphtha, NGL and Methanol enables Bandar Imam to cover a diversity of Olefin and Chlor-Alkali products such as HPDE, LDPE, PP, PVC and Caustic Soda. Bandar Imam has been founded in 1971, yet is the largest petrochemical plant in Iran. It also is the largest LPG producer in Iran.

Petrochemical - Boushehr

Bushehr Petrochemical Company

This petrochemical plant located on South Pars & Pars Special Economic / Energy Zone (Phase2) at a 60 Hectares area. The goals of this project are producing of Ethane, Ethylene, C3+cuts, Methanol, Sulfur, EG, LLPDE/HDPE, Acetic acid and C3/C4. Total production capacity is more than 5 million ton per year. The feed of plant is sour gas which will be supplied from south Pars gas field.

Tabriz Petrochemical Company

Tabriz Petrochemical Company (TPC), established in 1990, operates a large production complex at Tabriz city suburb in north-west of Iran. The complex encompasses an area of 391 hectares at an altitude of 1362 metres above the sea level and is situated adjacent to Tabriz Refinery. Operating since1996, it mainly produces raw plastics such as polyethylenes, polystyrenes and ABS. The main feedstock for the complex is light and heavy naphtha and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).Major portion of the feedstock is supplied by Tabriz Refinery and the rest by Tehran Refinery through pipeline and petrochemical companies at southern Iran by truck. The water needed for the complex is supplied by the urban water network. TPC produces entire electrical power needed for its operation . The Complex consists of several production units and some utility units. The Olefins plant which acts as the mother unit of the Complex and supplies the feedstock to other units was commissioned in January 1996 and the latest unit of the Complex ( Hydrogenation of C4/C5 )in May 2013. TPC is a Public Limited Liability Company ( PLC ) whose main shareholder is Tabriz Oil Refining Company that operates Tabriz Refinery.